French history – Chateau De Villesavin 41 http://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/ Sun, 31 Jul 2022 12:20:32 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon-43.png French history – Chateau De Villesavin 41 http://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/ 32 32 Was history wrong about Oliver Cromwell’s persecution of Catholics? | history books https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/was-history-wrong-about-oliver-cromwells-persecution-of-catholics-history-books/ Sun, 31 Jul 2022 10:00:00 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/was-history-wrong-about-oliver-cromwells-persecution-of-catholics-history-books/ OAccording to new research, Cromwell was much more committed to religious freedom and equality than historians previously thought. The results suggest that he wanted Jews to be allowed to worship openly in England and Irish Catholics to be allowed to worship freely, as long as it was in private. Academics have unearthed an obscure 17th […]]]>

OAccording to new research, Cromwell was much more committed to religious freedom and equality than historians previously thought. The results suggest that he wanted Jews to be allowed to worship openly in England and Irish Catholics to be allowed to worship freely, as long as it was in private.

Academics have unearthed an obscure 17th century pamphlet that reveals that despite his bloody and well-established reputation as a ruthless persecutor of Catholics in Ireland, by 1650 Cromwell was in fact willing to allow Irish Catholics the freedom to practice their religion in private without interference.

Newly discovered documents detailing meetings the Puritan leader had with lawyers, merchants and clergy in 1655 also reveal for the first time the precise reasons why Cromwell “strongly supported” the readmission of Jews to England and its desire to offer them religious freedom. “Cromwell’s commitment to religious freedom and religious equality is much more radical than many historians thought,” said John Morrill, emeritus professor of British and Irish history at the University of Cambridge.

Along with eight other researchers, Morrill has spent the past 11 years tracking down and examining the 1,253 documents containing Cromwell’s words that exist in libraries and archives around the world: “Cromwell believes that persecution is always counterproductive, because if you target militants, you end up radicalizing moderates. He also believes that the way to convert people is not through persecution, but through kindness.

Traditionally, historians have held that Cromwell invaded Ireland in 1649 to punish the Catholic Irish nation and commit atrocities, which led to an immense transfer of wealth and power from Irish Catholics to English Protestants. “However, our general examination of his letters and speeches in Ireland shows that his main purpose in going to Ireland was, in fact, to settle the problem of the royalists,” Morrill said.

Many English royalists had fled to sanctuary in Ireland to regroup after Cromwell’s execution of Charles I and were forming new alliances with Irish Catholic confederates and Ulster Scots: “These are the people he treats hardest in Ireland”.

A key piece of evidence that historians have previously relied on to demonstrate that Cromwell despised Catholics is a statement he made denouncing the Irish Catholic clergy, printed in London in 1650. Morrill and his team unearthed two earlier versions of this statement, printed only in Ireland, with a different title.

“The new versions we have found make it clear that while Cromwell harshly criticizes the Irish clergy for encouraging rebellion and supporting the slaughter of Protestants, he is trying to demonstrate to the common people of Ireland that they have nothing to fear from him,” Morrill said. “What the priests have told the people – that they have come to ‘root out’ or destroy Catholics and Catholicism in Ireland – is completely untrue, and on the contrary, they will protect religious freedom in Ireland.”

The Irish versions of the pamphlet claim that Cromwell will tolerate private Catholic worship and that ordinary Catholics will not be forced to conform to Protestantism.

Although Cromwell later killed dozens of Irish priests and forced hundreds more into exile, Morrill – who is himself an ordained Roman Catholic deacon – argues that this happened because Cromwell was convinced that many priests had provoked the rebellion of 1641, where terrible atrocities were inflicted on Protestants.

Oliver Cromwell (1599 – 1658) from a portrait attributed to Van Dyck. Photograph: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

There is little in Cromwell’s writings, he said, to suggest that Cromwell wanted to persecute Catholics for being Catholics, rather than for their politics and support for the king.

This matches the documents his team found showing that Cromwell negotiated with prominent Catholics to agree that, if they guarantee political loyalty and live in peace with him, he will give them religious freedom.

Another recently discovered correspondence confirms the sincerity and provenance of a letter which historians have, until now, doubted that Cromwell wrote to a French cardinal. In it, Cromwell indicates that he is currently prevented by Parliament from carrying out his desire to offer more freedom to Catholics, but the Cardinal has evidence that Catholics suffer less persecution under Cromwell than his predecessors, the Stuart Kings. .

Many of the original documents that scholars have found, often using web catalogs and newly digitized archives, have been thought to be missing for hundreds of years or were incompetently transcribed in the 18th century. This includes accurate records of meetings revealing how keen Cromwell was to invite the Jews, expelled by Edward I in 1290, back to England. “He wanted Jews who could help fund trade with the Caribbean and he had no problem granting religious freedom to get their expertise.”

Lawyers advised “rather reluctantly” that Cromwell’s Jews could return legally, but that he would not be able to give them new rights without the consent of Parliament, which he would not get. “So he does what he can, allowing them to come back and have a synagogue and a cemetery. And from that time there were Jews in England.

The research will be published in a three-volume book, The letters, writings and speeches of Oliver Cromwell, in September. Morrill hopes it will offer a more nuanced view of Cromwell as “a flawed man, deeply tolerant, but grappling with the responsibilities of power in a fractured and divided nation”.

University of Essex professor John Walter, an expert on modern history, says the ‘exciting’ documents Morrill has uncovered suggest Cromwell was in fact an extraordinarily tolerant leader by the standards of the time “Morrill is absolutely right to present this portrayal of Cromwell as a complex and pious man who – not least for political reasons – wants to readmit the Jews to England and bring stability to Ireland, offering religious freedom to Catholics”, a- he declared.

In the 17th century, Royalist and Catholic propaganda portrayed Cromwell as a man of blood and violence, and historians have so far failed to properly question the accuracy of this depiction, a- he declared. “This analysis rightly says: look at these key documents and think again.”

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Salt, politics and the French Revolution https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/salt-politics-and-the-french-revolution/ Fri, 29 Jul 2022 19:42:00 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/salt-politics-and-the-french-revolution/ It’s no secret that food is political. Everyday products, including food, have the power to uproot, break and recreate societies. A particularly dramatic example of food disrupting the status quo concerns the role of salt in the French Revolution. French cuisine is deeply linked to notions of class, politics and society. The most famous quote […]]]>

It’s no secret that food is political. Everyday products, including food, have the power to uproot, break and recreate societies. A particularly dramatic example of food disrupting the status quo concerns the role of salt in the French Revolution. French cuisine is deeply linked to notions of class, politics and society. The most famous quote from the French Revolution was, after all, a food metaphor: “Let them eat cake.”

In centuries past, salt was even more of a staple than it is today. As Stéphane Hénaut and Jeni Mitchell write in A little history of France, salt was not only used in cooking, but also as an important preservative. Like today, salt also helped people flavor their foods when other spices were too expensive to obtain. It could also be used as currency – according to Hénaut and Mitchell, the word salary “[is derived] from the Latin salarium, the money given to Roman legionaries to buy their salt rations.

Despite France’s salt mines, French royalty began taxing salt in the 1200s as a way to finance war. The tax, called “gabelle”, remained in place for centuries. The Gabelle was applied randomly, and some regions were exempted while others, such as Paris, had to pay twenty times more than other regions of the country. The already troublesome situation worsened quite dramatically in the 18th century when King Louis XIV monopolized all French salt.

King Louis imposed the monopolized supply of salt on the population by instituting a “duty on salt”, which obliged all French people over the age of eight to buy a minimum quantity of salt each year, or face persecution. . Worse still, French royalty kept the gabelle at the top the “salt duty”; however, the nobility and elite were often exempt from paying the salt tax. Naturally, this led to social unrest and rampant salt smuggling.

Hénaut and Mitchell write that the gabelle had been the cause of “periodic peasant rebellions” for several centuries before the French Revolution. Then, at the end of the 18th century, it was the cause of revolution. Once the revolution began, there were many competing visions in play as to what the new France should look like, but one thing roughly everybody agreed was that the gabelle was oppressive and had to disappear. Therefore, it was finally abandoned in 1790.

One of the reasons why the French Revolution is difficult to understand is that, although it had a profound influence on modern society and its political structures, it ultimately did not end with intact democracy – that would take decades and other revolutionary periods to come to fruition. . On the contrary, the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century ended with the dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon, ever the bloodthirsty imperialist, reinstated a salt tax for all French people without discrimination in 1806 to help fund his European conquest. The gabelle in its post-revolutionary form lasted until the end of World War II, when France finally abolished it for good.

Thus, like the history of the French Revolution in general, the history of the gabelle is messy and non-linear. Its unpopularity and injustice fueled the revolutionary movement and helped generate democratic reforms that would influence the entire world; its reintroduction by Napoleon sparked further controversy and contributed to yet more revolutionary periods and unrest.

The story of the tax reminds us that everyday ingredients like salt and other seemingly mundane products can dramatically shape politics and alter history. On a similar revolutionary note, we are currently witnessing the political consequences of food and fuel shortages in Sri Lanka, where, after months of protests, Sri Lankans stormed and occupied the presidential palace on July 9 and set fire to the same day the Prime Minister’s house. on the ground.

The revolutionary events around the salt tax of 18th century France teach us that something as simple as salt can be a spark plug for civil unrest and revolution. At a time of deepening climate crisis, unending pandemic and general political chaos, we must challenge ourselves to think of everyday commodities in political terms: how and why they shape our lives and how or what needs to change.

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Hamilton leaves a big hint about the future; Ricciardo identifies key weakness: F1 Pit Talk https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/hamilton-leaves-a-big-hint-about-the-future-ricciardo-identifies-key-weakness-f1-pit-talk/ Thu, 28 Jul 2022 01:43:00 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/hamilton-leaves-a-big-hint-about-the-future-ricciardo-identifies-key-weakness-f1-pit-talk/ Lewis Hamilton is already in the upper echelons of the place in terms of success, but last weekend he joined a rare six-member drivers club to start 300 grand prix. He’ll overtake Jenson Button and Michael Schumacher to take fourth at the United States Grand Prix, and he’ll beat Ruben Barrichello’s 322 races to take […]]]>

Lewis Hamilton is already in the upper echelons of the place in terms of success, but last weekend he joined a rare six-member drivers club to start 300 grand prix.

He’ll overtake Jenson Button and Michael Schumacher to take fourth at the United States Grand Prix, and he’ll beat Ruben Barrichello’s 322 races to take third on Lap 13 next season.

Kimi Raikkonen holds the record for most starts, with 349, but Fernando Alonso, the only active driver with more starts than Hamilton, will claim it at the Singapore Grand Prix in October.

Stream all the action from F1’s Hungarian Grand Prix this weekend on Kayo. Pre-race coverage begins at 9:30 p.m. AEST on Sunday, with live racing starting at 11 p.m. New to Kayo? Try 14 days free now >

He is therefore part of an esteemed company – but also reaches the upper limits of historic longevity in Formula 1.

And with a record equaling seven titles under his belt and all-time records for wins, poles and podiums, one would imagine he’s set to call it a day when his contract runs out next December.

Still, Hamilton says he’s not done yet, with his next mission to help Mercedes return to the Championship.

Suddenly, 400 races may not seem so far away.

Elsewhere, Daniel Ricciardo reflected on his main weakness at the French Grand Prix ahead of this weekend’s race in Hungary, where he has enjoyed great success in the past, while Sergio Perez is set to become a manager. team in a fledgling electric racing series.

HAMILTON HAS “MANY LEFT IN THE TANK” AFTER 300 RACES

Lewis Hamilton has hinted a contract extension could be considered when his current contract expires at the end of next year, saying he enjoys the sport “more than ever” despite Mercedes’ struggles.

Hamilton is having the least successful season of his career, having never gone more than 10 races without a win. After 12 rounds this season, his best result is second place, taken last weekend in France. He also faces the prospect of the first winless season of his entire racing career.

At 37, Hamilton has spoken openly about his possible retirement, and some believed the stipulations of his current contract, which commits him and Mercedes to significant charity work in the area of ​​social justice and equality , positioned it to go post-F1. life.

Leclerc collapses from the French GP | 01:26

But Mercedes’ decline this season appears to have energized the Briton, especially as signs of modest progress became evident in the final rounds, coinciding with his 300th race, and the seven-time champion instead suggested he was considering a new contract.

“I want to be grateful first of all that it’s come to this,” he said. “But I still feel fresh and I still feel like I have a lot of fuel left in the tank.

“I enjoy what I do.

“I’m really, really proud and love coming in every day and working with this incredible group of people.

“I also love working with sport more than ever. We have great people running the sport and having great conversations about where we are going as a sport, so I appreciate that more than ever. I would say, in this space.

Hamilton stressed that the challenge of rebuilding Mercedes – having played a relatively small role in transforming them into winners in 2014 despite their significant contributions to keeping the team at the top afterwards – motivated him to keep going.

“Of course I want to get back to winning ways, and that will take time, but I’m sure we’ll sit down at some point and talk about the future,” he said.

“But again, just with our team, I always want to keep building. It’s one thing to have races, but it’s also to continue the work that we’re doing on the outside and to do more, that that I think Mercedes and we can always do more, and we will.”

Sainz FIRE by Ferrari’s strange tactics | 01:12

RICCIARDO IDENTIFIES TIRES AS A KEY DEFICIT FOR HIS TEAM MATE

Daniel Ricciardo says improving his tire management is a key challenge for him to get along with teammate Lando Norris.

Ricciardo had a decent weekend in France, starting and finishing ninth and within sight of Norris, who took the flag eight seconds on the road after a long second stint of tire management through the first safety car.

He had back-to-back races with points following his solid recovery from a hampered qualifying in Austria, the first time he had finished in the top 10 in back-to-back races since Italy and Russia last September.

But seventh and ninth were a disappointing comeback for McLaren overall. While Norris and Ricciardo outqualified Alpine rivals Fernando Alonso and Esteban Ocon respectively, their positions were swapped on Sunday afternoon, with Alonso finishing sixth and Ocon eighth, giving the French team control of fourth in the constructors’ standings. .

Ricciardo said not only the tires were a key difference between McLaren and Alpine in the race, but also rubber management was a major weakness of its relative compared to Norris.

Ricciardo: I’m not done yet | 16:38

“I had a bit of pace at the start of the stint and tried to make the most of it, but then it fell a little too fast,” Ricciardo said. “I really struggled from the middle of the relay and I didn’t have the pace to run with the Alpines and Lando.

“In the first part of the relay I was able to hang on, but in the second part when they are able to stretch their legs, I just miss that extra grip and that extra bit of speed.

“If I do a good lap, I lose a lot on the next lap, so there is still work to be done.

“I don’t feel like I’m progressing with the tyre. I feel like I’m still trying to manage [and] still don’t seem to have the grip they have.

“I felt like I did my best, but that’s not enough to make me happy.

“Double points, but we will keep working.”

PEREZ BECOMES TEAM BOSS IN THE MOTORBOAT SERIES

Sergio Perez has developed a recent history of taking charge in Formula 1, but he is set to turn the tide by becoming team boss in a new racing series.

Perez will lead Team Mexico in the upcoming E1 series of electric racing boats, the latest brainchild of racing mogul Alejandro Agag, who orchestrated the Formula E and Extreme E electric racing series.

Agag was previously manager of the GP2 title-winning team Addax, for which Perez raced in 2010 and finished second, earning him promotion to Formula 1 with Sauber the following season.

FIERY Perez & Russell come and go! | 01:21

“I’m really excited to become a new team owner in E1 and to have a team representing Mexico,” Perez said. “Given my relationship with Alejandro, I have followed what he was doing and his various championships closely, and I think what he has achieved in promoting more sustainable forms of motorsport is commendable.

The E1 series will fly “RaceBird” hydrofoils, which the sport says will reach speeds of 93 kilometers per hour via an outboard electric motor producing 150 kW via a 35 kWh battery.

“I’ve heard a lot of positive stories about the boat and the exciting sporting product that E1 is trying to create for the fans with events in town,” Perez said. “To see a race team fly the Mexican flag on a world stage will be amazing, and I can’t wait to see the RaceBird in action for the first time.”

Team Mexico is the second team to join the series after the Venice Racing Team

The E1 series will depart in 2023, although no date or location has yet been announced.

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What is the Esperanto language? | Story https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/what-is-the-esperanto-language-story/ Tue, 26 Jul 2022 11:00:00 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/what-is-the-esperanto-language-story/ A meeting of the Esperanto Union of Soviet Republics, held in Moscow in 1931 Public domain via Wikimedia Commons In the late 1800s, the city of Białystok – once Polish, then Prussian, then Russian and now part of Poland again – was a hub of diversity, with large numbers of Poles, Germans, Russians and Yiddish-speaking […]]]>

A meeting of the Esperanto Union of Soviet Republics, held in Moscow in 1931
Public domain via Wikimedia Commons

In the late 1800s, the city of Białystok – once Polish, then Prussian, then Russian and now part of Poland again – was a hub of diversity, with large numbers of Poles, Germans, Russians and Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews. Each group spoke a different language and viewed members of other communities with suspicion.

For years, LL Zamenhof, a Jewish man from Białystok who had trained as a doctor in Moscow, dreamed of a way for various groups of people to communicate easily and peacefully.

On July 26, 1887, he published what is now called Book UnuaWhere first bookwhich introduced and described Esperanto, a language that Zamenhof had spent years devising in hopes of promoting peace among the peoples of the world.

LL Zamenhof

LL Zamenhof

Public domain via Wikimedia Commons

Esperanto vocabulary is mainly drawn from English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin, Polish, Russian and Yiddish, as these are the languages ​​with which Zamenhof was the most familiar. Grammatically, Esperanto has been mainly influenced by European languages, but it is interesting to note that some of the innovations of Esperanto bear a striking resemblance to features found in some Asian languages, such as Chinese.

Now, 135 years later, Europe is once again torn apart by violence and tension, including the war between Russia and Ukraine, which is at least partially driven by a political debate over language differences. Unfortunately, language-related conflicts are common all over the world.

The promise of peace through a common language has yet to catch on, but there may be as many as two million Esperanto speakers in the world. And the language continues to spread, albeit slowly.

A language for all

Growing up in the multicultural but wary environment of Białystok, Zamenhof dedicated his life to building a language that he hoped could help foster harmony between groups. The goal was not to replace anyone’s native language. On the contrary, Esperanto would serve as a universal second language that would help promote international understanding and, hopefully, peace.

Esperanto is easy to learn. Nouns have no grammatical gender, so you never have to wonder if a table is masculine or feminine. There are no irregular verbs, so you don’t have to memorize complex conjugation tables. Plus, the spelling is completely phonetic, so you’ll never be confused by silent letters or letters that sound different in different contexts.

In Book Unua, Zamenhof described the 16 basic rules of Esperanto and provided a dictionary. This book has been translated into more than a dozen languages; at the beginning of each edition, Zamenhof definitively renounces all personal rights to its creation and declares Esperanto “the property of the society”.

Soon Esperanto spread to Asia, North and South America, the Middle East and Africa. Beginning in 1905, Esperanto speakers from all over the world began to gather once a year to participate in the World Esperanto Congress, where they celebrated and used the language.

Between 1907 and his death in 1917, Zamenhof received 14 nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize, although he never won the prize.

Continuing Zamenhof’s work, the Universal Esperanto Association, an organization that seeks to foster relations between peoples through the use of Esperanto, has been nominated more than 100 times for the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his “contribution to world peace by enabling people from different countries to enter into direct relations without language barriers”. So far, he has never won the award.

Struggles and successes

After World War I, the League of Nations – the predecessor of the United Nations – was founded in the hope of preventing future conflicts. Soon after, the Iranian delegate to the League of Nations proposed that Esperanto be adopted as the language of international relations.

This proposal was vetoed by the French delegate, who feared that the French language would lose its prestigious position in diplomacy. In 1922, the French government went further and banned the teaching of Esperanto in all French universities, allegedly as a tool for spreading communist propaganda.

Ironically, life behind the Iron Curtain wasn’t much easier for Esperanto speakers. In the Soviet Union, the Esperantists were said to be part of an “international spy organization”. Many were persecuted and then perished during dictator Joseph Stalin’s Great Purge.

Lidia Zamenhof (left) was murdered during the Holocaust.

Lidia Zamenhof (left) was murdered during the Holocaust.

Public domain via Wikimedia Commons

According to the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, Esperanto was proof of a Jewish plot to take over the world. During the Third Reich, the Gestapo received specific orders to search for Zamenhof’s descendants. Her three children died in the Holocaust, as did many Esperanto speakers.

Despite these events, in 1954 the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (better known as Unesco) adopted a resolution recognizing – and establishing a relationship with – the Universal Association of ‘Esperanto. The resolution opened the door for the Esperanto movement to be represented at UNESCO language events.

In 1985, Unesco adopted a resolution encouraging countries to add Esperanto to their school curricula. For years, China has offered Esperanto as a foreign language option at several of its universities, one of which houses an Esperanto museum. An interlinguistics program offered at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poland is actually taught in Esperanto.

More recently, Unesco declared 2017 the year of the Zamenhof, and since then its flagship journal, the Unesco Courierhad a quarterly edition in Esperanto.

Give peace a chance

Today, Esperanto is spoken by pockets of enthusiasts all over the world, including Antarctica. A wide range of free Esperanto resources are available online, including Duolingo, lernu!, the Complete Illustrated Dictionary of Esperanto, the Complete Handbook of Esperanto Grammar, and Google Translate.

Esperanto also has its own edition of Wikipedia, which currently contains more entries than the Danish, Greek and Welsh editions of Wikipedia.

In Esperanto, the word “Esperanto” means “one who hopes”. Some would say it’s idealistic to believe that Esperanto could unite humanity, especially in the midst of another great war.

But even the most violent wars do not end without peace talks, which often require translators to interpret the languages ​​of the opposing parties. Zamenhof wondered if violence itself wouldn’t be less common if a neutral language could help people bridge their gaps.

Joshua Holzer holds a Ph.D. from the University of Missouri, an MA from the University of Southern California, another MA from the Monterey Institute of International Studies, and a BA from the University of Denver. He is a five-year veteran of the United States Army.

This article is republished from The conversation under Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

The conversation

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Born in England to a Scottish mother, Rosella Ayane is Morocco’s reluctant new heroine https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/born-in-england-to-a-scottish-mother-rosella-ayane-is-moroccos-reluctant-new-heroine/ Sat, 23 Jul 2022 04:05:23 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/born-in-england-to-a-scottish-mother-rosella-ayane-is-moroccos-reluctant-new-heroine/ Rosella Ayane didn’t realize what she had just realized when she scored the winning penalty in the Women’s Africa Cup of Nations semi-final. It’s not meant in the sense of “it hasn’t been understood yet, the enormity of the moment hasn’t quite dawned on me”. It wasn’t that Ayane just didn’t have time to process […]]]>

Rosella Ayane didn’t realize what she had just realized when she scored the winning penalty in the Women’s Africa Cup of Nations semi-final.

It’s not meant in the sense of “it hasn’t been understood yet, the enormity of the moment hasn’t quite dawned on me”. It wasn’t that Ayane just didn’t have time to process the achievement and what it meant to her and the nation.

She literally didn’t realize that her kick, Morocco’s fifth in the shootout to beat Nigeria and send the hosts to the final for the first time ever, was decisive.

After clinically pushing him away, she clenched her fist in low-key celebration, turned around, and started walking towards the center circle. Then she noticed that the entire Rabat stadium had exploded and her teammates were charging around the pitch. She looked a little confused, turned to her left with her palms as if to say “…What?”

Watching it all unfold, you briefly wondered if this was the ultimate flex, which she simply said, “Of course, winning a penalty in the shootout, probably the most pressured moment of my career, not problem, what’s the problem?” Was she just playing it super, super cool?

“First of all, I’m not that cool”, says Ayane Athleticisma few days after the semi-final.

“What you saw was completely raw. I was so focused on scoring my penalty, I was so closed-minded about that particular moment that I kind of blocked out everything else. I just turned around, saw everyone running towards me and I thought, ‘…Oh my god, we won it’. It was just a crazy moment, really.

Talking to Ayane about the moments leading up to the penalty, it sounds like she was in a sort of trance, a heightened state of consciousness and a level of concentration particular to elite athletes. All superfluous information is blocked, all thoughts directed to the task at hand, absolute tunnel vision.

“As I walked towards the penalty spot there was a lot of noise, but I just tried to block that. When the others were taking their penalties, I thought of nothing but hoping that everything the world would score and that I would score.

“It all happened so fast. I couldn’t think of anything but scoring my penalty. That’s all we can say about it. I was pretty calm, I wasn’t thinking of anything else Just trying to focus on one thing.

The only thing that nearly broke his concentration was a weirdly long conversation with referee Maria Rivet after Ayane made the long walk from the center circle. Rivet had spoken to all the players who came forward but he seemed particularly involved in this matter.

“I can’t tell you the first part of the conversation because it was in French. I tried to be as respectful as possible and let her speak, because I understand a little French, but when she finished, I just thought: “I didn’t understand anything of what you have said.

“So I just said, ‘I’m really sorry, can you repeat that in English? The only part of the conversation that I really took into account was that she told me not to celebrate when I scored, because she had to check that it was a goal. So maybe subconsciously (in terms of reaction) it was in the back of my head without me realizing it.

It bears repeating what a colossal moment it was. The match ended 1-1 after extra time, with Nigeria down to nine players after red cards were shown to Halimatu Ayinde and Rasheedat Ajibade.

To say that Nigeria have historically dominated the tournament would be a blatant understatement. They have won nine of the previous 11 official editions, their worst performance being fourth place. They were the favorites to win a fourth consecutive WAFCON title, even without their star player, Barcelona’s Asisat Oshoala, who suffered a knee injury in the group stage.

Hosts Morocco had never made it past the group stage before. In fact, they hadn’t even qualified for WAFCON since 2000 and won only one match at the tournament in their history. They had also never qualified for the World Cup, but by reaching the semi-finals they took that step, with this WAFCON doubling down on qualifying for the World Tournament in New Zealand and Australia next year. Even to be in the semi-finals was an extraordinary achievement, but to reach the final was something else.

And it all came down to Ayane. The shootout was ready at 4-4 when it escalated with Nigeria having taken all of their own, with centre-forward Ifeoma Onumonu the only one missing, perhaps distracted by the laser pens aimed at him from the crowd .

It is the biggest single kick in the history of Moroccan women’s football. Maybe it was for the best that Ayane didn’t quite realize it was the clincher.

“People chose when they wanted to take one, and I ended up being fifth,” she says. “It wasn’t predetermined and it wasn’t something like ‘I want to be fifth’, it happened like that. I didn’t think: ‘I’m going to take the winning penalty.’ »

So wasn’t this a time when Cristiano Ronaldo insisted on being last in order to claim glory?

“Absolutely not. As you can see from my reaction, I’m not someone who likes all the glory, I just wanted to score for the team.

The shooting must have been particularly poignant for Moroccan coach Reynald Pedros. The Frenchman took and missed a penalty in the shootout that knocked France out of Euro 96, also in the semi-finals. Prior to this tournament he had rolled high, being part of the Nantes side that won Ligue 1 in 1995 and had a transfer offer to Barcelona, ​​which he turned down for family reasons.


Ayane in action at WAFCON (Photo: AFP)

Instead he went to Marseille, where things didn’t work out, and the rest of his career was itinerant, taking a few ill-advised stints in Italy, before exhausting himself in the French lower leagues and Qatar. .

The missed penalty was not the only cause of his decline in play, but it was the highlight on which his career turned. He only earned a handful of further caps and was booed in his next game for France. If anyone knows how much missing a crucial penalty in a major tournament can transform someone’s career, it’s him.

Perhaps wisely, he didn’t tell his team about it this time. “I don’t know about the other girls,” Ayane says, “but we definitely didn’t have that conversation, and he didn’t tell the group about it.” Athleticism belatedly realizes, with a frightening nod to our advancing years and the relentless march of time, that Ayane was three months old during Euro 96.

Ayane was born and raised in England, her mother Scottish and her father Moroccan. She started out at Chelsea, never really broke through there and after a series of loans and a brief stint in Cyprus, moved to Tottenham in 2019.

She played for England at youth level but the Moroccan FA got in touch shortly after signing for Spurs, although at this stage the timing was not right. When the opportunity to represent them surfaced again last year, she jumped at the chance. “As my career progressed, I wanted to play senior international football, and it was the perfect time in my life to do so.”

She made her debut against Mali in June 2021 and scored in the first minute of the game. Since then, she has been an integral part of Pedros’ team and has only been part of a losing team once, in a friendly against Spain.

“My Moroccan roots are very close to my heart and it’s something I’m very proud of,” she says. “It’s such a special feeling to see how proud I make my father’s family: they still live here in Casablanca, they’ve been to every game so far in the tournament.

“I spent a lot of time in Morocco when I was a child. I played soccer in the street with my grandmother’s neighbors and kicked a ball on the beach. You could never take the ball away from me when I was here, I remember buying a Moroccan shirt at the market as a child and then wearing it to school in England.

Morocco will face South Africa in the final in Rabat on Saturday, in front of what should be another full house at the Prince Moulay Abdallah Stadium. To even be at this stage is remarkable, but to become the third different nation to win this tournament would be even more so.

“We are achieving so many firsts for Morocco,” says Ayane. “It was an incredible race. I hope we can add something else to the story list.

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American Airlines Reports Profits Despite Trailing Jet Fuel Costs https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/american-airlines-reports-profits-despite-trailing-jet-fuel-costs/ Thu, 21 Jul 2022 12:26:13 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/american-airlines-reports-profits-despite-trailing-jet-fuel-costs/ Published on: 07/21/2022 – 14:26Amended: 07/21/2022 – 14:24 New York (AFP) – American Airlines on Thursday reported a profitable second quarter as the ebb from the Covid-19 pandemic drove record revenues despite the hit from rising fuel costs. The major US carrier said its first profitable quarter since the start of the pandemic was due […]]]>

Published on: Amended:

New York (AFP) – American Airlines on Thursday reported a profitable second quarter as the ebb from the Covid-19 pandemic drove record revenues despite the hit from rising fuel costs.

The major US carrier said its first profitable quarter since the start of the pandemic was due to operations rather than government support programs.

Profits were $476 million, up from just $19 million a year ago.

Revenue jumped about 80% to $13.4 billion, the highest in company history. Kerosene costs have more than doubled compared to the 2021 period.

Expensive tickets fueled the surge. From April to June, revenues were 12% higher than the pre-pandemic quarter of 2019, even though capacity was 8.5% lower.

American reported that the trend continues in the third quarter, when it expects revenue 10-12% above 2019 levels, with capacity down 8-10%.

Leisure travel remains above pre-pandemic levels, while Americans have also seen an improvement in business travel and international bookings, Chief Executive Robert Isom said in a letter to employees.

“Making sure America can benefit from the continued recovery has been our collective goal, and the second quarter is proof that our stocks are delivering positive results,” Isom said.

“There is no better validation of this than reporting our first quarterly profit since the start of the pandemic.”

The shares fell 3.2% to $14.73 in premarket trading.

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History of the Tour de France: Lucien Van Impe wins the biggest prize https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/history-of-the-tour-de-france-lucien-van-impe-wins-the-biggest-prize/ Tue, 19 Jul 2022 12:01:05 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/history-of-the-tour-de-france-lucien-van-impe-wins-the-biggest-prize/ Lucien Van Impe may be the greatest climber in Tour history, but in 1976 he swapped his polka dot jersey for yellow, making the difference on a stage that the 2022 Tour will replicate on stage 17 tomorrow . Words Gilles Belbin Photo The Team For 1976, the organizers of the Tour de France took […]]]>

Lucien Van Impe may be the greatest climber in Tour history, but in 1976 he swapped his polka dot jersey for yellow, making the difference on a stage that the 2022 Tour will replicate on stage 17 tomorrow .

Words Gilles Belbin Photo The Team

For 1976, the organizers of the Tour de France took the Grand Départ to Merlin-Plage, just south of the Vendée seaside resort of Saint-Jean-de-Monts.

Among the 130 starters who gathered for the first leg of the 4,017km race were four of the top five from the previous year.

The defending champion, Bernard Thévenet, was back, accompanied by Lucien Van Impe, Joop Zoetemelk and Vicente López Carril.

The missing man? It was Eddy Merckx. The rider who dominated cycling for so long is injured and heading into the final chapters of his career.

Most observers had Thévenet and Zoetemelk as favourites, but Van Impe also had a pedigree.

Possibly the greatest climber to ever turn a pedal on the Tour – he would win six mountain classification awards and once claimed the only reason he didn’t take more was out of respect for Federico Bahamontes, the great Spanish climber who has achieved six Tour mountain titles himself – Van Impe entered the race as the leader of the Gitane team.

With two final podium places under his belt, he was considered to have a legitimate chance of victory, even if it was on the outside.

With more than 90km of individual time trials ahead of him, Van Impe had spent the winter riding against the clock, aware that time gained in the mountains could all too easily be lost in TT.

His team had also experienced a change of direction, Cyrille Guimard taking over from Jean Stablinski, bringing with him another atmosphere to the team.

“Last year I had two valuable teammates, Alain Santy and Mariano Martinez,” Van Impe said before the race, “but they weren’t fit for the Tour. The team lacked cohesion.

“Under Guimard’s direction, that changes… for the first time, I’m entering the Tour to win it.”

Ultimately, Van Impe’s relationship with Guimard would almost disintegrate in Paris.

The Tour takes place in the Pyrenees

The opening week was ruled by Tour rookie Freddy Maertens, who won four of the first nine stages, spent the first ten days in yellow and would finish in green in Paris. Then the race reached the Alps with a summit finish in Alpe d’Huez.

It was only the second time the race had visited the now legendary climb, Fausto Coppi having first scaled its 21 hairpins en route to a famous victory in 1952.

Today, 24 years later, Van Impe went pedaling with Zoetemelk to the top, with neither man able to land the knockout blow.

Zoetemelk took the stage win on the line, while Van Impe took yellow. Thévenet meanwhile took eighth place and is now 1 minute 48 seconds behind Van Impe overall.

His sporting director at Peugeot, Maurice de Muer, was indifferent: “We think that it is in the Pyrenees that the Tour will be played.

De Muer was right, although by the time the race reached its final stage, a lot had changed. Thévenet had fallen ill, but his teammate Raymond Delisle had taken the lead after attacking on the 2000 Pyrenees stage.

This decision had apparently been taken following the suggestion of none other than Guimard, who had wanted to lose responsibility for the yellow jersey for a few days.

When a furious Van Impe then confronted his sporting director, Guimard simply told his rider to leave the race if he didn’t like the way he was handling things.

Two days later, the stage that De Muer predicted would be crucial – 139 km from Saint-Gaudens to Saint-Lary-Soulan (a stage that the 2022 Tour will largely reproduce on stage 17 en route to Peyragudes) in covering four major climbs, including a summit finish at Pla d’Adet.

A cartoon by the great cycling illustrator René Pellos in the post-Tour issue of Cycling Mirror perfectly caricatured of what happened that day.

It shows Van Impe wringing out his rivals after plunging them into a giant bathtub filled with foam bearing the names of the mountains they climbed that day.

Guimard and Louis Caput, the sporting director of Zoetemelk in Gan-Mercier, face off while, at the very top, the image of Van Impe is carved like Mount Rushmore in the Pyrenean peak behind, under the gaze of a Merckx covered with clouds.

The exact events of that day remain subject to conjecture. The final point came 80km from the finish when Van Impe broke away from the group of favorites to follow a move by Luis Ocaña. But who had the idea for Van Impe to attack then?

Guimard is quoted in Ed Pickering’s book, The yellow jersey clublike having to implore journalists to Het Volk drive up to Van Impe and tell him in Flemish that “if he doesn’t start riding he’s gonna lose the Tour, the idiot”, after Van Impe initially hesitates to chase.

For his part, Van Impe reportedly said he always knew he could take the jersey on this stage, simply reflecting that “Guimard always takes credit for it”.

Argue all the way

Who or whatever prompted Van Impe to launch this attack, the move worked. After reaching the breakaway group for the first time, he then closed in on Ocaña, who worked with the Belgian before falling.

That left Van Impe taking the stage victory more than three minutes behind Zoetemelk, who had remained behind the wheel of Delisle, betting that the yellow jersey would eventually bring him back to the front of the race.

But Delisle didn’t have the legs and the day ended with Van Impe back in yellow.

The jersey will remain on the Belgian’s shoulders until Paris, although this is not the end of the drama as a team.

On the Puy de Dôme stage, Zoetemelk’s last chance to take yellow, Van Impe had to chase every movement himself after an argument with Guimard over the cans.

Van Impe was reportedly so incandescent at being left to his own devices that he threatened to quit the race despite being in yellow and days away from Paris.

His wife, Rita, had to travel to France to convince her husband to apologize and move on.

In the end, Van Impe’s final margin in Paris was over four minutes. He remains the last Belgian to win the Tour. Perhaps unsurprisingly, he changed teams in 1977.

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The 20-year history of French regional carrier Air Alpes https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/the-20-year-history-of-french-regional-carrier-air-alpes/ Sun, 17 Jul 2022 20:30:00 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/the-20-year-history-of-french-regional-carrier-air-alpes/ Founded in 1961 by Michel Ziegler to offer glacier ski drop-offs to winter sports enthusiasts, the airline’s history has centered around the French Alps. Originally created as a flight school and to serve mountain communities, Société Air Alpes was based at Chambéry Savoie Mont Blanc Airport (CMF) and at Viviers-du-Lac in Chambéry. The airline began […]]]>

Founded in 1961 by Michel Ziegler to offer glacier ski drop-offs to winter sports enthusiasts, the airline’s history has centered around the French Alps. Originally created as a flight school and to serve mountain communities, Société Air Alpes was based at Chambéry Savoie Mont Blanc Airport (CMF) and at Viviers-du-Lac in Chambéry.

The airline began operations with a single Piper PA-18 Super Cub, primarily providing flight training and delivering supplies to mountain communities. The airline then acquired a PC-6/340 Porter which was soon replaced by a Pilatus PC-6/A-H2 Porter turboprop. By the early 1960s there was considerable interest in glacier skiing and the airline built its own high altitude airstrips which required landing guidance from people on the ground.

SIMPLEFLYING VIDEO OF THE DAY

High altitude airstrips for glacier skiing

At the time, guides and ski instructors from French alpine resorts worked closely with the airline to offer glacier skiing on Mont Blanc. Only six passengers and their instructor could be transported by Air Alpes planes for each flight.

In 1963, a second Pilatus PC-6/A-H2 joined the fleet, and the company built what it called an “altiport” at 10,660 feet in the ski resort of La Plagne. In 1964, the airline launched seasonal flights to the French Mediterranean island of Corsica. It has leased a six-seat SFERMA SF-60 Marquis aircraft to start service to Lyon-Bron Airport (LYN) in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. In 1967, Air Alpes took delivery of its first de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter and fitted it with skis so it could operate in and out of Courchevel Altiport (CVF) high in the mountains. During the summer, the Twin Otter was used to provide flights to Chambery, Grenoble, Nice and Ajaccio.


**Unfortunately the lucrative high altitude skiing came to an end in 1979 after a decision was made to ban glacier skiing.**

The service to Paris begins

In 1968 it became apparent that there was a high demand for flights to Paris, and in 1969 Air Alpes began flying to Paris Le Bourget Airport (LBG) five times a week. Additionally, in 1969, Air Alpes took delivery of a 15-seat Beechcraft Model 99 turboprop.

In 1972, Air Alpes purchased 30% of Avi ALPI, an Italian airline based in northern Italy. The same year, Air Alpes inaugurated flights between Dole-Jura airport (DLE) and Paris and Paris to Geneva airport (GVA) with Twin Otters. Additionally, in 1972, Air Alpes became part of the Air France reservation system and began offering flights on behalf of Air France.

By the end of 1973, Air Alpes was flying 50 routes and placed an order for four Aérospatiale Corvette short-range business jets, with options for eight more. In 1974, flying with the livery of Air France, Air Alpes acquired a Cessna 401, a Cessna 402 and a Cessna 411 after buying Air Limousin, Air Rouergue and Pyrénair.

In 1975, the first of two Fokker F27 Friendship turboprops arrived and were immediately put on the airline’s Chambery-Paris route. In 1977, Air Alpes decided to get rid of its Corvettes and began to cut unprofitable routes. In 1979, Air Alpes replaced its Fokker 27s with 65-seat Fokker F28 Fellowship jets and began flights from Paris to Aeropuerto de Figari Sud-Corse (FSC) in Corse du Sud.

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The end of the road for Air Alpes

On July 3, 1980, an agreement was signed with TAG Techniques d’Avant Garde, now the majority shareholder of Air Alpes and Transregional Air Transport (TAT). In 1981, TAT acquired over 75% of the shares of Air Alpes, and the airline subsequently ceased operations.

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“Croissants move”: vegan chefs are reinventing French pastry | Vegan food and drink https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/croissants-move-vegan-chefs-are-reinventing-french-pastry-vegan-food-and-drink/ Fri, 15 Jul 2022 18:53:00 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/croissants-move-vegan-chefs-are-reinventing-french-pastry-vegan-food-and-drink/ RStanding in his patisserie, Odolphe Landemaine inspects the rows of traditional lemon meringue pies and cream pavlovas. “In France, cakes have to be visual,” he said. “I had to produce something that not only tasted amazing, but looked elegant.” The display – from apple pies to almond and chocolate croissants – looked like any other […]]]>

RStanding in his patisserie, Odolphe Landemaine inspects the rows of traditional lemon meringue pies and cream pavlovas. “In France, cakes have to be visual,” he said. “I had to produce something that not only tasted amazing, but looked elegant.”

The display – from apple pies to almond and chocolate croissants – looked like any other lavish Parisian bakery, with one difference: it was all vegan.

France is experiencing a surprise boom in artisanal vegan pastry. The meat nation, whose centuries-old baking tradition was based on eggs, butter and cream, has been shaken up by a new generation of pastry chefs reinventing classics without animal products.

But the crucial twist of this high-end French vegan patisserie is that it’s not marketed simply to vegans. By aiming to recreate classics that taste better than the original dairy-based versions and setting up traditional shops that blend almost imperceptibly into city streets, vegan pioneers are winning over an unsuspecting mainstream, making profits and seek to expand internationally. They see it as a subtle change in the world through strawberry pies.

Vegan cakes behind the counter at Land and Monkeys. Photograph: Ed Alcock/The Guardian

France is not an easy market to penetrate. According to a 2020 Ifop poll, less than 1% of the population is vegan, and the word “vegan” itself has taken on negative political associations amid squabbles over activism against butcher shops. France is the European country where per capita consumption of beef is the highest. But, crucially, 24% of French people identify as flexitarians and reduce their meat consumption.

Landemaine, 45, describes himself as a “pure product of French gastronomy”, a classically trained Norman pastry chef who worked in the biggest Parisian patisseries and then opened his own group of classic bakeries. “When I then became vegan myself, people thought I was joining a sect, really in France they looked at me and said: the boss is weird, he’s gone crazy,” he says. .

Landemaine decided that more people in France would go vegan if there were “more absolutely delicious, easy-to-eat offerings that spoke to the history of French food tradition”. His idea was: “Don’t throw away the classics, keep them, but simply bring French pastry into the 21st century.”

He launched his vegan patisserie and bakery, Land and Monkeys (named after a return to the land and our ancestors) just before the Covid pandemic, fearing it would fold after three months. But it now has six stores in Paris, and another opening in the La Défense business district in September.

Vegan cream pie, or flan, on the counter at VG Patisserie.
Vegan cream pie, or flan, on the counter at VG Patisserie. Photograph: Ed Alcock/The Guardian

Although a committed vegan, Landemaine banned the word vegan from the store, instead using “vegetable”, or herbal, in fine print. A lot of regular customers don’t know initially that it’s vegan. “People decide it’s fine, and only then can you address ethical and environmental issues as the icing on the cake,” he said. “If it doesn’t taste good, people won’t be open to these ideas.”

The biggest technical challenge has been replacing eggs: He launched a separate startup to develop alternative plant proteins from potatoes and peas.

“The last country in the world that will go vegan is France, so if it works here, it will take off everywhere,” Landemaine said.

In eastern Paris, Bérénice Leconte, 32, is considered the pioneer of French vegan pastry. She opened the country’s first vegan pastry shop, VG Patisserie, five years ago. But since the easing of Covid restrictions, she has seen a huge surge in demand for her vegan croissants, vanilla flan, pastry and wedding cakes. “What has changed enormously are the orders I now receive to supply croissants to restaurants and exclusive hotels,” she said. “We see a change in mentality among the great chefs in France. Five years ago, nobody wanted to talk about vegan baking; now they are all interested in trying it. Before, if you asked for a vegan breakfast in a French hotel, it was bread, jam, fruit salad. This is no longer enough, because the croissants pass.

Vegan croissants at VG.
Vegan croissants at VG. Photograph: Ed Alcock/The Guardian

The trend goes beyond Paris, with vegan pastries like Oh Faon! in Marseille and Zoï in Lyon. Juliette Draux, who runs L’Instant in the provincial town of Tours, won France’s top prize for vegan pastry last fall and is known for creations such as apricot and lavender tarts and chocolate dessert covered with moss. “There’s a growing demand for vegan baking because people know it’s really good,” Draux said. “The picture changes. It used to be that if you said you were vegan, people thought you were going to tag a butcher shop.

Matteo Neri, director of food industry research at Xerfi analysts in Paris, said the vegan artisan pastry emerging in French cities contrasted with the relatively low French consumption of vegan supermarket products, such as plant-based milks. , fake meats and vegan cheese. Its recent report showed that sales of vegan products in French supermarkets were less than half of those in the UK and were “growing relatively slowly” due to “food conservatism” in France.

Patrick Rambourg, historian of French gastronomy, declared: “The success of these vegetable pastries is to offer classics, but made in a different way. For the French, pastry rhymes with pleasure. The young plant-based pastry chefs have understood how to anchor themselves in the French landscape by operating as a traditional neighborhood pastry shop, offering beautiful cakes for everyone. The taste corresponds to our traditions.

At Land and Monkeys, Valentine, 20, a maths student, was eating a cinnamon roll. She wasn’t vegan and didn’t notice at first that the shop was. “You can’t tell the difference,” she says. “I actually think it’s better than the standard pastry. I’ll be back.”

Vegan cakes at Land and Monkeys.
Vegan cakes at Land and Monkeys. Photograph: Ed Alcock/The Guardian

A short guide to vegan pastry in France

Some croissants French vegan bakers say their biggest challenge is to replicate the look and melting effect of a traditional butter croissant, while avoiding a margarine aftertaste. Considered the most difficult vegan pastry to succeed.

Yarrow Thin layers of crispy puff pastry covered in cream. The key to vegan versions of this classic is to achieve contrasting textures. The cream is often almond or soy-based, sometimes with cornstarch.

Lemon pie Traditional French lemon tart can stand alone or be made with a meringue top, sometimes made with aquafaba or bean water. Vegan pastry chefs focus on the quality and spiciness of the lemon cream filling, high in fruit.

Vanilla flan One of the most popular “everyday” pastries in France, the challenge is to replace the eggs. Some use a pinch of turmeric to create the yellow color.

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Today in History: July 14, Congress Passes the Sedition Act https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/today-in-history-july-14-congress-passes-the-sedition-act/ Thu, 14 Jul 2022 04:32:42 +0000 https://chateau-de-villesavin-41.com/today-in-history-july-14-congress-passes-the-sedition-act/ Today in History Today is Thursday, July 14, the 195th day of 2022. There are 170 days left in the year. Today’s highlight in the story: On July 14, 2004, the Senate defeated a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. (Forty-eight senators voted to push the measure forward — 12 less than the 60 needed — […]]]>

Today in History

Today is Thursday, July 14, the 195th day of 2022. There are 170 days left in the year.

Today’s highlight in the story:

On July 14, 2004, the Senate defeated a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. (Forty-eight senators voted to push the measure forward — 12 less than the 60 needed — and 50 voted to block it).

To this date :

In 1789, in an event symbolizing the start of the French Revolution, the citizens of Paris stormed the Bastille prison and freed the seven prisoners inside.

In 1798, Congress passed the Sedition Act, making it a federal crime to publish false, scandalous, or malicious writings about the United States government.

In 1881, outlaw William H. Bonney Jr., aka “Billy the Kid”, was shot dead by Sheriff Pat Garrett at Fort Sumner in what is now New Mexico.

In 1912, American folk singer-songwriter Woody Guthrie (“This Land Is Your Land”) was born in Okemah, Oklahoma.

In 1933, all German political parties, with the exception of the Nazi Party, were banned.

In 1945, Italy officially declared war on Japan, its former Axis partner in World War II.

In 1976, Jimmy Carter won the Democratic presidential nomination at the party’s convention in New York.

In 1980, the Republican National Convention opened in Detroit, where apparent nominee Ronald Reagan told a welcome rally that he and his supporters were determined to “make America great again.”

In 2009, disgraced financier Bernard Madoff arrived at Butner Federal Correctional Complex in North Carolina to begin serving a 150-year sentence for his massive Ponzi scheme. (Madoff died in prison in April 2021.)

In 2015, world powers and Iran reached an agreement to curb Iran’s nuclear program in exchange for relief from international sanctions.

In 2016, terror struck the 14th of July celebrations in Nice (nees), on the French Riviera, when a large truck rammed into a celebrating crowd, killing 86 people in an attack claimed by extremists from The Islamic State ; the driver was shot dead by the police.

In 2020, researchers reported that the first COVID-19 vaccine tested in the United States boosted people’s immune systems as scientists had hoped; the vaccine was developed by the National Institutes of Health and Moderna Inc. The federal government carried out its first execution in nearly two decades, killing by lethal injection Daniel Lewis Lee, who had been convicted of murdering a family of Arkansas in a 1990s plot to build an all-white nation in the Pacific Northwest.

Ten years ago: A suicide bomber blew himself up among guests at a wedding hall in northern Afghanistan, killing 23 people, including a former Uzbek warlord-turned-lawmaker who was the father of the bride.

Five years ago: A Russian-American lobbyist said he attended a June 2016 meeting with President Donald Trump’s son, presented as part of a Russian government effort to help the Republican campaign. Arab assailants opened fire from inside a prominent Jerusalem shrine, killing two Israeli policemen before being shot.

A year ago: The World Health Organization reported that deaths from COVID-19 increased worldwide in the previous week after nine consecutive weeks of decline; the setback triggered another round of restrictions. The US government reported drug overdose deaths hit a record high of 93,000 in 2021 amid the COVID-19 pandemic; experts said the shutdowns and other restrictions had isolated drug users and made treatment harder to get.

Today’s birthdays: Actress Nancy Olson turns 94. Former football player and actress Rosey Grier is 90 years old. Actor Vincent Pastore is 76 years old. Tommy Mottola (muh-TOH’-luh), music company executive, is 74 years old. Rock musician Chris Cross (Ultravox) is 70 years old. Actor Jerry Houser is 70 years old. Actor-director Eric Laneuville is 70 years old. Actor Stan Shaw is 70 years old. Film producer Scott Rudin is 64 years old. Singer-guitarist Kyle Gass is 62 years old. Actress Jane Lynch is 62 years old. Actor Jackie Earle Haley is 61 years old. Matthew Fox is 56 years old. Rock musician Ellen Reid (Crash Test Dummies) is 56. Singer and rock musician Tanya Donelly is 56 years old. Former child actress Missy Gold is 52. Olympic gold medal snowboarder Ross Rebagliati is 51 years old. R&B singer Tameka Cottle (Xscape) is 47. Country singer Jamey Johnson is 47. The hip-hop musician “taboo” (Black Eyed Peas) is 47 years old. Actor Scott Porter is 43 years old. Actor/writer/producer Phoebe Waller-Bridge is 37 years old. Rock singer Dan Smith (Bastille) is 36 years old. Actress Sara Canning (TV: “The Vampire Diaries”) is 35 years old. Rock singer Dan Reynolds (Imagine Dragons) is 35.

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